Treatment of chronic, nonmalignant pain syndromes has been largely suboptimal and the most debilitating conditions–such as LBP, arthritis, and neuropathic pain–continue to pose a significant burden to individuals and society. Although significant scientific advances in delineating pathophysiologic mechanisms have facilitated the development of targeted pharmacologic and interventional treatments, the integral role played by psychologic, behavioral, and social factors in generating, perpetuating, and individualizing the pain experience has been largely ignored. Consequently, adequate pain relief may still be an achievable goal, but one that is often realized only with a concomitant, cognitive, behaviorally based, functional restoration approach. A multidisciplinary integrative approach that places equal emphasis on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying pain, as well as the multidimensional interplay of cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences is essential to improving outcomes. Although there are presently a paucity of data that identify specific characteristics that define which individuals will benefit from any particular modality, evidence clearly demonstrates that the MPC setting offers patients an opportunity to achieve both adequate pain relief and improved physical, behavioral, and psychologic function. A key challenge for clinicians lies in changing the approach to pain “treatment” and in bridging the gap between the current evolving understanding of pain mechanisms and clinical management. Physiatrists’ focus on maximal functional restoration is a critical contribution to cost-effective pain medicine practice. Wisely combining effective pain management techniques within a functional restoration program has the best chance of improving the quality of life for patients with chronic pain disorders and diseases.